The British National Formulary recommends a gradual withdrawal when discontinuing anti-psychotic treatment to avoid acute withdrawal syndrome or rapid relapse.  Due to compensatory changes at dopamine, serotonin, adrenergic and histamine receptor sites in the central nervous system, withdrawal symptoms can occur during abrupt or over-rapid reduction in dosage. However, despite increasing demand for safe and effective antipsychotic withdrawal protocols or dose-reduction schedules, no specific guidelines with proven safety and efficacy are currently available. Support groups such as the Icarus Project , and other online forums provide resources and social support for those attempting to discontinue antipsychotics and other psychiatric medications.  Withdrawal symptoms reported to occur after discontinuation of antipsychotics include nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, diaphoresis , dyskinesia , orthostatic hypotension , tachycardia , nervousness, dizziness, headache, excessive non-stop crying, and anxiety .   Some have argued additional somatic and psychiatric symptoms associated with dopaminergic hypersensitivity, including dyskinesia and acute psychosis, are common features of withdrawal in individuals treated with neuroleptics.     Thus, some suggest the withdrawal process itself may be schizo-mimetic, producing schizophrenia-like symptoms even in previously healthy patients. 
Valproic acid was first synthesized in 1882 by Beverly S. Burton as an analogue of valeric acid , found naturally in valerian .  Valproic acid is a carboxylic acid , a clear liquid at room temperature. For many decades, its only use was in laboratories as a "metabolically inert" solvent for organic compounds. In 1962, the French researcher Pierre Eymard serendipitously discovered the anticonvulsant properties of valproic acid while using it as a vehicle for a number of other compounds that were being screened for antiseizure activity. He found it prevented pentylenetetrazol -induced convulsions in laboratory rats .  It was approved as an antiepileptic drug in 1967 in France and has become the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug worldwide.  Valproic acid has also been used for migraine prophylaxis and bipolar disorder.