Oxandrolone neuro pharma

The British National Formulary recommends a gradual withdrawal when discontinuing anti-psychotic treatment to avoid acute withdrawal syndrome or rapid relapse. [57] Due to compensatory changes at dopamine, serotonin, adrenergic and histamine receptor sites in the central nervous system, withdrawal symptoms can occur during abrupt or over-rapid reduction in dosage. However, despite increasing demand for safe and effective antipsychotic withdrawal protocols or dose-reduction schedules, no specific guidelines with proven safety and efficacy are currently available. Support groups such as the Icarus Project , and other online forums provide resources and social support for those attempting to discontinue antipsychotics and other psychiatric medications. [58] Withdrawal symptoms reported to occur after discontinuation of antipsychotics include nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, diaphoresis , dyskinesia , orthostatic hypotension , tachycardia , nervousness, dizziness, headache, excessive non-stop crying, and anxiety . [59] [60] Some have argued additional somatic and psychiatric symptoms associated with dopaminergic hypersensitivity, including dyskinesia and acute psychosis, are common features of withdrawal in individuals treated with neuroleptics. [61] [62] [63] [64] Thus, some suggest the withdrawal process itself may be schizo-mimetic, producing schizophrenia-like symptoms even in previously healthy patients. [65]

Valproic acid was first synthesized in 1882 by Beverly S. Burton as an analogue of valeric acid , found naturally in valerian . [68] Valproic acid is a carboxylic acid , a clear liquid at room temperature. For many decades, its only use was in laboratories as a "metabolically inert" solvent for organic compounds. In 1962, the French researcher Pierre Eymard serendipitously discovered the anticonvulsant properties of valproic acid while using it as a vehicle for a number of other compounds that were being screened for antiseizure activity. He found it prevented pentylenetetrazol -induced convulsions in laboratory rats . [69] It was approved as an antiepileptic drug in 1967 in France and has become the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug worldwide. [70] Valproic acid has also been used for migraine prophylaxis and bipolar disorder. [71]

Oxandrolone neuro pharma

oxandrolone neuro pharma